In ARGUS DATA INSIGHTS’s analyses, statements are the smallest subject of analysis in a media report. They are a thematic unit: a statement may for example be one sentence long or may run through the entire report (like a topic).
The author is the creator of the media report. Abbreviations are removed and missing author names are researched wherever possible. On social media, an author can be the sender of a post, and may therefore be described as an ‘influencer’.
A content analysis is a collection of methods from the empirical social sciences. Analysing content with the empirical method is suitable for systematically describing contextual and formal features of coverage in a way that is comprehensible intersubjectively and enables reduced complexity so that specific questions can be answered.
Stakeholders are organisations, institutions, groups of people or individuals who directly or indirectly have a say in media reports and present their view or position on a particular topic to the public. Stakeholders are recorded in ARGUS DATA INSIGHTS’s analyses in order to examine which interest groups have a say during a particular period of analysis.
A ‘report’ is considered to be a media report (article) that is relevant to the particular analysis. Reports may be articles in print or online, broadcasts or parts of broadcasts on the radio or TV, and posts on social media.
In ARGUS DATA INSIGHTS’s analyses, a ‘mention’ is an appearance of an element that is relevant to the analyses (e.g. the company’s name) in a media report. For example, the term can be used to describe the number of companies, stakeholders or products appearing in a media report. Similarly, it is possible that an analysis may cover more mentions than there are media reports.
A quantitative analysis is a numerical evaluation of media reports. For quantitative analyses, the focus is on summarising media reporting and its metadata, such as circulation or WEMF region. The standard quantitative analysis product is a presence analysis.
Unlike quantitative analyses, ARGUS DATA INSIGHTS’s qualitative analyses focus not just on metadata, such as circulation or WEMF region, but also on content elements, such as the dominance or exclusivity of the subject of analysis. Therefore, qualitative analyses facilitate statements about the manifest and latent elements of media coverage for a subject of analysis. Examples of qualitative analysis include input-output analyses or influencer analyses.
In ARGUS DATA INSIGHTS's analyses, population is understood to mean the total quantity of reports that could be incorporated into the evaluation. The population for an analysis may be internal media monitoring, or all of the coverage that a particular media title provides on a specific topic. It is therefore a preselection of what will serve as the data basis.
The data basis is the media reports that are actually included in the analysis, based on the analysis design and the population. To determine the data basis, the population is narrowed down using selection criteria, such as a period of analysis or specific media channels or media titles.
The analysis basis is created from the data basis and differs from it because it is possible to exclude media reports that are duplicated or are not relevant to the analysis. It is therefore a cleaned-up version of the data basis that is used for the analysis.
‘Evaluation’ is the ‘tone’ used in a media report about the subject of analysis. For this analysis, it is relevant how the subject of analysis (.e.g company, brand, product or person) is represented in the content.
A distinction is made between a positive, neutral and negative evaluation. As well as this three-level evaluation, ‘favourable’, ‘critical’ and ‘controversial/ambivalent’ tones are common. A distinction is drawn between the evaluation of the subject of analysis and the tone of the article as a whole. For example, a negative media report may contain a positive mention of the company (such as via a positive example).
In principle, the viewpoint of a neutral, independent media consumer is used to code reports.
This records whether a media report is written at a journalist’s instigation or is triggered by a company’s communication activities. A distinction is made between ‘self-initiated’ (the media report is created as a result of a company’s communication activities) and ‘initiated by a third party’ (the media report is created separately to a company’s communication activities). For a report to be deemed ‘self-initiated’, it has to be possible to trace the relevant media report back to a relevant communication activity. Indicators of this are statements such as: ‘According to a press release’ or ‘At the press conference’. The origin is primarily relevant to the input-output analysis.
‘Citation level’ covers how completely self-initiated communication activities are featured in a media report. The citation level is measured based on the inclusion of the core messages contained in the communication activities. The more core messages that are included, the higher the citation level.
The ‘dominance’ variable covers the proportion of the media report's overall content occupied by the subject of analysis. The higher the dominance of the relevant subject of analysis, the more the overall content of the media report will focus on said subject of analysis.
‘Exclusivity’ records whether other (competing) companies, brands, products or people comparable to the subject of analysis are also included in the media report.
The quality value is a key figure that measures and compares the quality of communication activities in relation to individual, strategic corporate goals. The customisable quality value consists of various factors, such as reach or evaluation, and quality characteristics, such as presence in the most important media (media publications that have a particularly major influence on public opinion and affect other mass media) or the exclusivity of coverage. The ARGUS quality value reduces the quality of coverage to an indicator that can be used as a unit for measuring the success of media and public relations work. More information is available here.
Media reports may take various different forms in terms of layout and content. The length, layout and content of an article are taken into account when assigning a particular report type. For example, in terms of content, a distinction is made between information articles and opinion articles. Possible report types include: news, report, editorial report, portrait, interview, lead article, column, commentary, essay or reader letter.
The ‘WEMF regions’ assign the various different Swiss media titles to the relevant circulation area of the individual media products, enabling an overview of the regional distribution of media impact in Switzerland. WEMF regions are issued by WEMF AG, a leading Swiss advertising media research agency, and can be viewed here.
A ‘category’ covers the allocation of media reports to a pre-defined grid. Brands, products or companies can all be categories. Media report categorisation serves to create a rapid overview of media impact and can be applied as a selection criterion to determine the data basis for an analysis. Unlike issues/sub-topics, categories are pre-defined receptacles for structuring reports.
In ARGUS DATA INSIGHTS's analyses, a ‘topic’ is an overarching focus of coverage content. A topic generally consists of multiple issues/sub-topics and, unlike a category, provides an answer to what is actually touched on in relevant media reports and is not pre-defined.
An issue or sub-topic is an overall topical focus of media reporting. Unlike a category, this focuses more strongly on the content-related context of the media coverage. The assignment grid does not have to be pre-defined, but can instead be ‘derived’ from media reports. This is particularly true for new, previously unknown topic areas. Various issues/sub-topics can be put together to form a ‘topic’, and a media report can also contain multiple issues/sub-topics. A sub-topic is neutral, whilst an issue has a more critical content focus.
Reputation describes the image of a company, person or institution presented to the public by the media. For a company, reputation is an intangible asset and forms part of the company’s value, similarly to patents or trademarks. The reputation index measures the reputation of a company or brand in the public’s eyes.
Dimensions of reputation and reputation drivers
Dimensions and drivers of reputation are the elements making up reputation, with each dimension consisting of multiple drivers. Together, these form an overall picture of how the relevant subject of analysis is perceived internally and externally. Reputation drivers are topics that are recorded in media coverage in a way that expresses judgement about the subject of analysis For a company, the following topic areas may be considered dimensions of reputation: ‘corporate’, ‘products & innovation’, ‘sustainability’ and ‘CEO’. The CEO dimensions of reputation itself may then consist of the reputation drivers ‘business success’, ‘leadership/governance’ and ‘mission statements’.
The ‘reputation index’ sets out the reputation value for the relevant subject of analysis. Like the ‘net promoter score’, this includes both positive and negative media reports, and compares them with overall coverage (incl. neutral and ambivalent mentions). The reputation index values range from -100 to +100. Multiple levels can be compared using the reputation index. For example, the reputation values of various different dimensions of reputation or topics can be compared with each other.
‘Sentiment’ is an automatic evaluation of tone. The sentiment of a media report can be ‘positive’, ‘neutral’, ‘ambivalent’ or ‘negative’, and differs because it relates to an evaluation of the overall article and not of the subject of analysis.
A sentiment analysis is generally performed for all media reports. However, there may be reports that consist of incomplete text or other media (videos, images, links), and therefore cannot be assigned a sentiment. Therefore, the number of reports evaluated may not be the same as the population total.
Keywords are an important tool for summarising the content of media reports. ‘Keyword extractors’ are used to pick out the key terms from the text based on frequency of use, in order to enable a rapid overview of a large quantity of text.
A word cloud is a method for visualising information. A list of terms (such as words, hashtags or tags) is displayed in a single graphic, with the frequency of individual terms weighted using elements such as colours of size differences, so that their importance for the subject of analysis is easily visible. The layout of the terms is generally random (automatic) and has no contextual significance.
In ARGUS DATA INSIGHTS’s analyses, impact is viewed as media coverage of the subject of an analysis. The subject of analysis may be a company, a brand or a product.
Media activity is considered to be activity undertaken by the PR and communications department with the aim of achieving media impact. Within this, ARGUS DATA INSIGHTS distinguishes between various different formal types, such as interviews, events or press releases. The response to individual media activities is also measured. See also: origin. In addition, media activity may be in response to previous media reports.
The non-weighted advertising equivalence value uses the full, standard value of a media report based on the calculation logic for print or online publications.
Unlike the non-weighted AEV, this incorporates the dominance of the relevant subject of analysis into the calculation of the equivalent monetary value. If a subject of analysis is only mentioned, the value of the report will be lower than for one where the subject of analysis dominates the content of the article.